Leg Vein Anatomy

Blood from the legs moves up from the Superficial (near the skin) vein to the Deep vein.

Veins that connect the Superficial with the Deep are called Perforating veins. They are like on-ramps to the freeway allowing traffic to merge on to the freeway from the feeder or service roads (the Superficial Veins).

3 Main Components:

Superfical Vein (Feeder Road)
Deep Vein (Freeway)
Perforating Vein (On-Ramp)

How Do Healthy Veins Work?

Healthy veins carry used blood back to the lungs, kidneys, liver and through your heart.

Veins are thin walled vessels that are easily pressed on by surrounding tissues when you walk, run, exercise, move or even simply breathe.This along with tiny one way valves within your legs veins results in a pumping action that keeps the old blood moving up out of your legs.

This is how nature fights the up hill force of gravity, and gets the stagnant blood out of your legs.

Diseased Veins

In Venous Reflux Disease, also known as Chronic Venous Insufficiency, the veins are no longer able to bring the old and used blood back up from the legs.

This occurs because of failure of the tiny one way valves. As the veins get bigger, the valve leaflets no longer touch, or approximate. The one way function of the valves breaks down. This leads to high pressure which leads to even bigger veins, and thus more valve failures.

Like a snow ball rolling downhill the bigger the veins are, the faster they get even bigger. This pressure along with the adverse effects from the old acidic used blood causes the problems that you may have.


  • Varicose Veins
  • Pain, Aching, or Cramping
  • Leg or Ankle Swelling
  • Burning or Itching of the Skin
  • Ulcers
  • Restless Legs
  • Heaviness and Fatigue
  • Skin Change

Are You at Risk?

Heredity is perhaps the most important risk factor for varicose veins. If this problem runs in your family, you are at high risk for the disease.

Occupation is the second most important risk factor. Those persons that stand in one place for long hours are more likely to develop the varicose veins.
Teachers, Nurses, Cashiers, and Factory Workers are commonly affected.

People that frequently lift heavy objects are also at higher risk.

Pregnancy, especially multiple pregnancies can increase your risk substantially for varicose veins.

Women get the disease more commonly than men as female hormones act to relax the walls of the veins.